Example simulation of a mixed population consisting of several lineages. a Simulation after 0 months, showing starting conditions b after 22 months, after the first season of dispersal c after 34 months, showing orphaned colonies (gray); and d 300 months, at the end of the simulation. Simulation arenas are 50 meters wide. Colors represent lineages that invest different amounts of effort in claustral versus parasitic queens.

  Part of: Helms IV JA, Bridge ES (2017) Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants. NeoBiota 33: 67-82. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.33.10300