Colony and territory sizes versus reproductive investment. Because parasitic queens extend the ecological lifespan of colonies, populations that invest more in parasitic queens experience larger average colony sizes (a) and colony territory areas (b). Points show means over all simulations for a given reproductive investment, and error bars show standard deviations. In (a), all values differ (P < 0.001) except for those at 1 and 0.98 relative investment (P = 0.997); in b all values differ (P < 0.001).

  Part of: Helms IV JA, Bridge ES (2017) Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants. NeoBiota 33: 67-82.