Range expansion versus reproductive investment. Investment in parasitic queens slows range expansion by diverting resources from the production of claustral queens. Points show mean maximum extents of spreading populations over all simulations for a given reproductive investment, and error bars show standard deviations. Points with different letters differ at P < 0.003.

  Part of: Helms IV JA, Bridge ES (2017) Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants. NeoBiota 33: 67-82. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.33.10300