Life cycle of the annual plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Months indicated are representative for populations in Europe where most new plants have established in June, have developed into seed-producing plants in September and then die while the seeds shed overwinter on or in the soil. The small loop represents (dormant) seeds that do not recruit but stay in the soil until the next year. The vital rates and corresponding parameters in the demographic model are listed for each period. The x represents new plant size in June, y the plant size in September, m the effect of mowing.

  Part of: Lommen STE, Jongejans E, Leitsch-Vitalos M, Tokarska-Guzik B, Zalai M, Müller-Schärer H, Karrer G (2018) Time to cut: population models reveal how to mow invasive common ragweed cost-effectively. NeoBiota 39: 53-78.