The impact magnitude of the 48 studied alien grasses across different impact mechanisms. On the x-axis are the least-squares means of the impact scores as derived from a cumulative link mixed effects model, and on the y-axis are the GISS impact mechanisms with the number of species in brackets. The points represent the impact magnitudes and the error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Letters on the right side of the confidence intervals are level groupings indicating significant differences among the mechanisms (level groupings with the same letters are not significantly different, comparisons are Tukey adjusted).

  Part of: Nkuna KV, Visser V, Wilson JRU, Kumschick S (2018) Global environmental and socio-economic impacts of selected alien grasses as a basis for ranking threats to South Africa. NeoBiota 41: 19-65.