From environmental changes to environmental damages by invasive alien plants. In an assessment approach, invasion-mediated changes become environmental damages or benefits when human values are incorporated. Human values matter in selecting relevant assessment endpoints and categories of impact, in distinguishing mere changes in ecological properties from negative or positive impacts, and in setting thresholds that separate impacts from significant impacts. Only significant negative impacts represent damage or harm (after Bartz et al. 2010).

  Part of: Bartz R, Kowarik I (2019) Assessing the environmental impacts of invasive alien plants: a review of assessment approaches. NeoBiota 43: 69-99.