Study area and study sites. Study area in southern Switzerland (left column) and selected study sites: Locarno (a; 46°10'36"N, 8°46'12"E), Sementina (b; 46°10'53"N, 8°58'13"E) and San Vittore (c; 46°14'19"N, 9°04'46"E; right column with scale bars representing 500 m). (d) Represents the study area analysed by Maringer et al. (2012) on the establishment of non-native species after a forest fire, which was used for comparison in this study.

  Part of: Knüsel S, Conedera M, Bugmann H, Wunder J (2019) Low litter cover, high light availability and rock cover favour the establishment of Ailanthus altissima in forests in southern Switzerland. NeoBiota 46: 91-116.