Examples of potential negative and positive feedback loops. Negative feedback loops can mitigate or balance invasions, whereas positive feedback loops can reinforce or exacerbate invasions. Examples are presented for each of the three proposed CHANS (source, transport, and recipient; Fig. 1) involved in the invasion process and are discussed further in the text.

  Part of: Sinclair JS, Brown JA, Lockwood JL (2020) Reciprocal human-natural system feedback loops within the invasion process. In: Wilson JR, Bacher S, Daehler CC, Groom QJ, Kumschick S, Lockwood JL, Robinson TB, Zengeya TA, Richardson DM. NeoBiota 62: 489-508. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.62.52664