Average costs between 1990 and 2020 of invasive species in Italy. Bars represent decadal means and grey points indicate annual cost totals, whilst the dotted line illustrates the mean cost over the entire period. Note that the y-axis is on a log scale.

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Tricarico E, Diagne C, Courchamp F, Gozlan RE (2021) The recorded economic costs of alien invasive species in Italy. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 247-266. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.67.57747