Annual robust costs of invasive species to the North American economy from 1960–2017. Each gray dot represents total annual costs and horizontal lines are decadal averages of economic costs. The dotted line represents the average over the entire period.

  Part of: Crystal-Ornelas R, Hudgins EJ, Cuthbert RN, Haubrock PJ, Fantle-Lepczyk J, Angulo E, Kramer AM, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Leroy B, Leung B, López-López E, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of biological invasions within North America. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 485-510.