Nature of reported costs (monetary totals and numbers of database entries) for IAS across European countries according to percentages considering method reliability (high vs. low) and implementation type (potential vs. observed). Highly reliable figures are from peer-reviewed, official and/or reproducible sources; observed costs have been empirically realised (i.e. excluding expected cost estimations).

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Turbelin AJ, Cuthbert RN, Novoa A, Taylor NG, Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Bodey TW, Capinha C, Diagne C, Essl F, Golivets M, Kirichenko N, Kourantidou M, Leroy B, Renault D, Verbrugge L, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species across Europe. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 153-190.