Distribution of IAS costs in Europe by a type of cost b cost type (left half) and impacted sector (right half) and c impacted sector. Panel b highlights linkages between cost types and impacted sectors, for example 5% (US$2.76/50.97 billion) of total costs were attributed to management, and 64% (US$1.76/2.76 billion) of these costs were incurred in the Authorities and Stakeholders sector, representing 81% (US$1.76/2.17 billion) of costs incurred by the Authorities and Stakeholders sector. Only reliable observed costs are considered (i.e. excluding irreproducible cost estimations and expected costs).

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Turbelin AJ, Cuthbert RN, Novoa A, Taylor NG, Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Bodey TW, Capinha C, Diagne C, Essl F, Golivets M, Kirichenko N, Kourantidou M, Leroy B, Renault D, Verbrugge L, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species across Europe. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 153-190. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.67.58196