Maps showing for each European country where data were available: a total reliable observed costs of IAS for the period 1960–2020 in million US$ (i.e. excluding irreproducible cost estimations and expected costs) b total reliable observed costs of IAS standardised by GDP (US$), and c scatter plot of total cost of IAS against GDP. Data are from a–c InvaCost (Ballesteros-Mejia et al. 2020; Diagne et al. 2020a; Angulo et al. 2021b) b, c World Bank (2020). Countries in white located in Europe did not have reported costs in the InvaCost database, or in the case of Russia and Turkey were excluded from this analysis due to their transcontinental nature.

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Turbelin AJ, Cuthbert RN, Novoa A, Taylor NG, Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Bodey TW, Capinha C, Diagne C, Essl F, Golivets M, Kirichenko N, Kourantidou M, Leroy B, Renault D, Verbrugge L, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species across Europe. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 153-190.