Four notorious invasive species with observed costs in Russia A the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis and associated dead trees of Fraxinus pennsylvanica B the box-tree moth Cydalima perspectalis and associated dead bushes of Buxus sempervirens C Sosnowsky’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi invading an agricultural field D common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia in the forest canopy. A–C Moscow Oblast (B an experimental trial) D Primorsky Krai. Photos taken by A, B V. Ponomarev C V. Kulakov (the photo is published with the permission from the photographed person) D N. Kirichenko a, b D. Kasatkin.

  Part of: Kirichenko N, Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Akulov E, Karimova E, Shneider Y, Liu C, Angulo E, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems in Russia. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 103-130.