Total (observed and potential) annual costs resulting from invasions in the Mediterranean region from 1990–2017 at five-year increments (except for the last three years of the dataset which cover the period 2015–2017). Data are presented for all costs combined, plus "Damage" and "Management" costs separately. Solid points and horizontal lines represent annual means over their respective 5-year intervals. Note that the y-axis is shown on a log10 scale. The slight decrease observed for the last three years is likely indicative of the incomplete sampling of cost for these last years, because of the delay between cost occurrence and reporting/publication.

  Part of: Kourantidou M, Cuthbert RN, Haubrock PJ, Novoa A, Taylor NG, Leroy B, Capinha C, Renault D, Angulo E, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species in the Mediterranean basin. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 427-458.