Presentation of the costs incurred by invasive alien species in France over the period 1993–2018 A total cost values (in 2017 US$) per year of invasive alien species in metropolitan France and French overseas territories. The reported amounts are calculated from observed costs (orange), or from both observed (i.e. incurred) and potential (i.e. predicted to occur) costs (green). Each point represents the cumulative cost for a given year; the size of each point is proportional to the number of estimates for that year. Average annual costs for 4-year periods are represented by squares and horizontal solid lines; dashed lines connect the average annual costs across these 4-year periods B temporal changes in observed costs (2017 value) for ‘Damage-Loss’ (simplified as Damage in the figure legend) vs. ‘Management’ (control, monitoring, prevention, management, and eradication of alien invasive species) costs.

  Part of: Renault D, Manfrini E, Leroy B, Diagne C, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2021) Biological invasions in France: Alarming costs and even more alarming knowledge gaps. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 191-224.