Cumulative costs (in 2017 US$ million) incurred to each sector per major group of invaders in France in the period 1993–2018. The “Mixed” sector indicates that two or more sectors were economically impacted by invasive alien species. Note that diverse/unspecified groups of invaders were excluded, as well as groups of invaders whose cumulative impact was less than US$ 1 million over the duration of the period (1993–2018).

  Part of: Renault D, Manfrini E, Leroy B, Diagne C, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2021) Biological invasions in France: Alarming costs and even more alarming knowledge gaps. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 191-224.