Gradient map of the cumulated numbers of invasive alien species and of total economic costs (US$ million) recorded from each region of metropolitan France (and French overseas territories on the right) over the period 1993–2018. When the impacted region of the cost was not specified, it was mapped as ‘France undetermined’.

  Part of: Renault D, Manfrini E, Leroy B, Diagne C, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2021) Biological invasions in France: Alarming costs and even more alarming knowledge gaps. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 191-224.