Cumulative costs (in 2017 US$) by taxonomic groups of invasive alien species in France over the time range 1993–2018 for A observed cost amounts and B both observed and potential costs. The “Multi-taxa costs” group refers to entries that presented costs without separating the different taxa.

  Part of: Renault D, Manfrini E, Leroy B, Diagne C, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2021) Biological invasions in France: Alarming costs and even more alarming knowledge gaps. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 191-224.