Representation of the geographic origin of the costliest invasive alien species in France over the period 1993–2018 (all those >1 million in cumulated cost). Some of the costliest invaders have multiple continental origins. The coloured bar on the right part of the figure shows the number of species for each continental area (North and South Americas, Arctic, Africa, Europe, Asia, Oceania). See Table 1 for the names of the costliest invasive taxa in metropolitan France and French overseas.

  Part of: Renault D, Manfrini E, Leroy B, Diagne C, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2021) Biological invasions in France: Alarming costs and even more alarming knowledge gaps. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 191-224.