Total economic costs (outer circles) and number of entries (inner circles) for invasive species in Spain for each cost descriptor (a) taxonomy in general (b) plant taxonomy (c) vertebrate taxonomy (d) arthropod taxonomy (e) mollusc taxonomy (f) environment (g) protection (h) economic sector (i) type of cost and (j) type of management cost. See methods for description of categories.

  Part of: Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Novoa A, Duboscq-Carra VG, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species in Spain. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, García-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 267-297.