Temporal trends of the economic costs (US$, log) of invasive alien species in Spain using the robust data (reported, incurred and reliable costs). Each blue circle represents the cumulative cost for a given year, whereas its size is proportional to the number of estimates for that particular year. Average annual costs are calculated in 4-year periods and are represented by black dots and horizontal solid lines. Dashed lines connect the average annual costs for these 4-year periods.

  Part of: Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Novoa A, Duboscq-Carra VG, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species in Spain. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 267-297. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.67.59181