Invasive species with cost data in Spain with respect to national and international regulations (a) Venn Diagram illustrating the number of invasive species incurring management costs in Spain that are not recorded as invasive in the country (GISD; Pagad et al. 2018), listed in European or national regulations or proposed as potential candidates to be included in European regulations. Numbers indicate the number of invasive species (b) costs (in US$ millions) incurred by taxonomy and environment of those IAS incurring management costs in Spain, that are included in national regulations, in European regulations or in neither one.

  Part of: Angulo E, Ballesteros-Mejia L, Novoa A, Duboscq-Carra VG, Diagne C, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive alien species in Spain. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 267-297.