Total economic costs of invasions in Germany across taxonomic groups (classes) showing method reliability (high vs. low) and implementation (potential vs. observed costs) in comparison to the overall total cost (indicated by the increasingly red scale). The colour of each balloon corresponds to the group sample size, based on annualised cost numbers (n = 194) and the size of the balloons to the respective cost (in US$ billions). We note that these sizes are not constrained to the four categories shown on the legend (i.e. they scale continuously).

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Sundermann A, Diagne C, Golivets M, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive species in Germany. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 225-246.