Average decadal costs of invasive species in Germany between 1960 and 2020. Black points represent decadal means and adjacent lines highlight the specific period, whilst grey points represent annual totals from which the decadal means were calculated. Note that the costs trends are not cumulative, with average costs determined for each individual decade. Note the log-transformed y-axis scale.

  Part of: Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Sundermann A, Diagne C, Golivets M, Courchamp F (2021) Economic costs of invasive species in Germany. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 225-246. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.67.59502