Invasion costs (US$ billions) as a function of number of years since introduction for UK invasive species. Note that both the x- and y-axes are on a log10 scale. The dashed line represents a linear regression model fit and the shaded area the 95% confidence interval. Pathways of introduction per species are indicated by different fill shapes and colours.

  Part of: Cuthbert RN, Bartlett AC, Turbelin AJ, Haubrock PJ, Diagne C, Pattison Z, Courchamp F, Catford JA (2021) Economic costs of biological invasions in the United Kingdom. In: Zenni RD, McDermott S, GarcĂ­a-Berthou E, Essl F (Eds) The economic costs of biological invasions around the world. NeoBiota 67: 299-328.