Total social costs (i.e., present value in million 2019-USD), upper and lower bound, of control measures for each invasive alien species (IAS), ranked in terms of increasing costs from left to right. For most species, the control costs would eradicate the IAS in all of Norway, but for five IAS (denoted ΒΆ) the control costs are estimated for eradication in vulnerable ecosystems only, as this is considered to be the most realistic control program for these five species. The number in parenthesis implies the number is far above the scale of the y-axis. Converting Norwegian Kroner (NOK) to US dollars (USD), we have for simplicity used the approximate Purchase Power Parity corrected exchange rate of 1 USD = 0.1 NOK. (https://data.oecd.org/conversion/purchasing-power-parities-ppp.htm).