Potential fates of symbionts (including pathogens) co-transported with INN host species. The left-hand panel represents a hypothetical INNS with a symbiome comprising pathogens A, B and uncharacterized symbionts 1ā€“3. Potential symbionts already in the native system are pathogens Cā€“ F and uncharacterized symbionts 4ā€“6. Symbionts can be gained and/or lost by INNS hosts. The main panel on the right presents, with examples, scenarios of gains, losses, and transfers between non-native and native hosts of different species, and outcomes associated with such interactions. Skull and crossbones indicates death/negative effects to native host population. Boxes with gray fill indicate theoretical outcomes for which no empirical evidence was found.

  Part of: Foster R, Peeler E, Bojko J, Clark PF, Morritt D, Roy HE, Stebbing P, Tidbury HJ, Wood LE, Bass D (2021) Pathogens co-transported with invasive non-native aquatic species: implications for risk analysis and legislation. NeoBiota 69: 79-102. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.69.71358