Averaged effects (increasing=1, decreasing= -1, none=0) of tree species non-native to Europe (NNTs) on the most frequently mentioned taxonomic groups. Grey bars indicate averaged effects using all cases (e.g. subordinate groups) found in the references; black bars indicate average values of one value for each reference and taxonomic group (e.g. subordinate groups are averaged per reference).

  Part of: Wohlgemuth T, Gossner MM, Campagnaro T, Marchante H, van Loo M, Vacchiano G, Castro-Díez P, Dobrowolska D, Gazda A, Keren S, Keserű Z, Koprowski M, La Porta N, Marozas V, Nygaard PH, Podrázský V, Puchałka R, Reisman-Berman O, Straigytė L, Ylioja T, Pötzelsberger E, Silva JS (2022) Impact of non-native tree species in Europe on soil properties and biodiversity: a review. NeoBiota 78: 45-69. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.78.87022