Day of year (doy), at which a the first open flower was observed (first.flow) b half of the length of the inflorescence bears open flowers (flow.half) c the first ripe (black) pods were observed (first.ripe) for each climatic zone (Metzger 2018). Climatic zones are ordered according to decreasing mean annual temperatures. With the exception of ALS, the ordering corresponds to increasing northern latitude. Different letters indicate significant effects of climatic zone (p < 0.05). For abbreviations of climatic zones, see Fig. 3.

  Part of: Ludewig K, Klinger YP, Donath TW, Bärmann L, Eichberg C, Thomsen JG, Görzen E, Hansen W, Hasselquist EM, Helminger T, Kaiskog F, Karlsson E, Kirchner T, Knudsen C, Lenzewski N, Lindmo S, Milberg P, Pruchniewicz D, Richter E, Sandner TM, Sarneel JM, Schmiede R, Schneider S, Schwarz K, Tjäder Å, Tokarska-Guzik B, Walczak C, Weber O, Żołnierz L, Eckstein RL (2022) Phenology and morphology of the invasive legume Lupinus polyphyllus along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. NeoBiota 78: 185-206.