Conceptual diagram of perceived and real wicked problems in managing biological invasions. Panel A represents a matrix of how perceived and actual wickedness can influence the outcome of management; Panel B illustrates emergent lessons from the four case studies of invasive species management discussed here. Vectors represent shifts in problem perception and management paradigms necessary for improving the manageability of each case study.

  Part of: Woodford DJ, Richardson DM, MacIsaac HJ, Mandrak NE, van Wilgen BW, Wilson JRU, Weyl OLF (2016) Confronting the wicked problem of managing biological invasions. NeoBiota 31: 63-86.